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Study: Intellectual Property Creates, Fuels High-Paying Jobs

WASHINGTON, April 29, 2010 – The Global Intellectual Property Center, an affiliate of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, this week released a study examining the affects of intellectual property on American jobs between 2000 and 2007.

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WASHINGTON, April 29, 2010 – The Global Intellectual Property Center, an affiliate of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, this week released a study examining the affects of intellectual property on American jobs between 2000 and 2007.

The study, conducted by Nam Pham of NBP Consulting, says sectors of the economy depending on IP are responsible for creating more and higher-paying jobs, sustaining economic growth and reducing the trade deficit.

The GIPC study identified 15 “IP-intensive” sectors, or those showing per-employee research and development spending exceeds the national average.

Compared to the 12 designated non IP-intensive, the IP-intensive sectors paid higher wages, added more new jobs and invested more in R&D and capital expenditures. Additionally, products of IP-intensive industries make up approximately 60 percent of U.S. exports.

The higher wages enjoyed by employees in IP-intensive sectors go to both white- and blue-collar workers. While IP-intensive sector salaries are 60 percent higher overall, low-skilled workers’ salaries are 40 percent higher.

Pham presented the study on Monday morning, along with Miriam Sapiro, deputy U.S. Trade Representative; Stanford McCoy, assistant USTR for IP and innovation; and Mark Esper, executive vice president of GIPC.

The panelists presented the findings as a testament to the importance of a strong IP enforcement regime, and urged the United States to adopt stronger IP enforcement policies to spur innovation and create more U.S. jobs.

The study quotes a figure of $53 billion lost to software piracy in 2008 alone, and claims that the costs of IP infringement may reach $1 trillion in the next several years. According to the IDC, whose numbers GIPC quotes, a 10 percent reduction in software piracy would create over 32,000 jobs and add $41 billion to the U.S. gross domestic product.

A recent report from the Government Accountability Office calls those claims into question. The report, on quantifying the effects of piracy and counterfeit goods, emphasizes that infringement has costs, but asserts that the lack of reliable data makes it extremely difficult to quantify the effects.

Attempts generally rely on studies whose data and methods are kept tightly guarded; the GAO found that the numbers often quoted could not be substantiated. The secretive nature of infringing activity, the difficulty of valuing the losses, and the inability to quantify the positive effects make a credible figure nearly impossible to obtain.

The Computer and Communications Industry Association, Consumer Electronics Association, Public Knowledge and Electronic Frontier Foundation signed on to a full-page ad in Monday’s Roll Call newspaper criticizing its reliance on figures called into question by the GAO report.

The GIPC study makes the case that IP-intensive industries are driving economic growth and creating jobs even during economic downturns.

Knowledge is driving the economy of the 21st century. But the U.S. Chamber also says that stronger enforcement would lead to more growth—a connection that is not made clear.

CCIA released its own competing study on Tuesday, detailing the affects of fair use and other copyright limitations on the U.S. economy. A number of these types of studies are being released as USTR is negotiating with its foreign counterparts over the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement, a controversial plurilateral trade agreement seeking to ramp up enforcement against intellectual property violations in member countries.

Copyright

Public Knowledge Celebrates 20 Years of Helping Congress Get a Clue on Digital Rights

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Screenshot of Gigi Sohn from Public Knowledge's 20th anniversary event

February 27, 2021 – The non-profit advocacy group Public Knowledge celebrated its twentieth anniversary year in a Monday event revolving around the issues that the group has made its hallmark: Copyright, open standards and other digital rights issues.

Group Founder Gigi Sohn, now a Benton Institute for Broadband and Society senior fellow and public advocate, said that through her professional relationship with Laurie Racine, now president of Racine Strategy, that she became “appointed and anointed” to help start the interest group.

Together with David Bollier, who also had worked on public interest projects in broadcast media with Sohn, and is now director of Reinventing the Commons program at the Schumacher Center for a New Economics, the two cofounded a small and scrappy Public Knowledge that has become a non-profit powerhouse.

The secret sauce? Timing, which couldn’t have been better, said Sohn. Being given free office space at DuPont Circle at the New America Foundation by Steve Clemmons and the late Ted Halstead, then head of the foundation, was instrumental in Public Knowledge’s launch.

The cofounders met with major challenges, Sohn and others said. The nationwide tragedy of September 11, 2001, occurred weeks after its official founding. The group continued their advocacy of what was then more commonly known as “open source,” a related grandparent to the new “net neutrality” of today, she said.

In the aftermath of September 11, a bill by the late Sen. Ernest “Fritz” Hollings, D-S.C., demonstrated a bid by large copyright interest to force technology companies to effectively be the copyright police. Additional copyright maximalist measures we launched almost every month, she said.

Public Knowledge grew into something larger than was probably imagined by the three co-founders. Still, they shared setbacks and losses that accompanied their successes and wins.

“We would form alliances with anybody, which meant that sometimes we sided with internet service providers [on issues like copyright] and sometimes we were against them [on issues like telecom],” said Sohn. An ingredient in the interest group’s success was its desire to work with everyone.

Congress didn’t have a clue on digital rights

What drove the trio together was a shared view that “Congress had no vision for the future of the internet,” explained Sohn.

Much of our early work was spend explaining how digitation works to Congress, she said. The 2000s were a time of great activity and massive growth in the digital industry and lawmakers at the Hill were not acquainted well with screens, computers, and the internet. They took on the role of explaining to members of Congress what the interests of their constituents were when it came to digitization.

Public Knowledge helped popularize digital issues and by “walking [digital information] across the street to [Capitol Hill] at the time created an operational reality with digitization,” said Bollier.

Racine remarked about the influence Linux software maker Red Hat had during its 2002 initial public offering. She said the founders of Red Hat pushed open source beyond a business model and into a philosophy in ways that hadn’t been done before.

During the early days of Public Knowledge, all sorts of legacy tech was being rolled out. Apple’s iTunes, Windows XP, and the first Xbox launched. Nokia and Sony were the leaders in cellphones at the time, augmenting the rise of technology in the coming digital age.

Racine said consumers needed someone in Washington who could represent their interests amid the new software and hardware and embrace the idea of open source technologies for the future.

Also speaking at the event was Public Knowledge CEO Chris Lewis, who said Public Knowledge was at the forefront of new technology issues as it was already holding 3D printing symposiums before Congress, something totally unfamiliar at the time.

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In Google v. Oracle, Supreme Court Hears Landmark Fair Use Case on Software Copyright

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Photo of Tom Goldstein from the Peabody Award used with permission

October 12, 2020 – The Supreme Court on Wednesday publicly struggled with the copyrightability of software in a uniquely contested case between Google and Oracle, the outcome of which could play a significant role in the future of software development in the United States.

The oral arguments were the culmination of a battle that started 10 years ago, when tech company Oracle accused Google of illegally copying its code. Oracle owns the copyright to the Java application programming interface that Google utilized to establish a new mobile operating system.

The company has sued Google for more than $9 billion in damages.

Yet Google claimed a “fair use” defense to its copying. Google copied less than 1 percent of the Java code. Even though the law generally treats computer programs as copyrightable, Google’s attorney before the Supreme Court, Thomas Goldstein, said that by adapting Oracle’s code to serve a different purpose, Google’s use was “transformational,” and entitled to fair use protections.

Goldstein said that this form of unlicensed copying is completely standard in software, and saves developers time and lowers barriers to innovation.

He referenced a famous Supreme Court precedent about public domain works, Baker v. Selden, which in 1880 declared that once information is published to the public, the public has a right to use it.

“Google had the right to do this,” said Goldstein.

Still, Oracle attorney Joshua Rosenkranz asserted that the Java code is an expressive work eligible for copyright protections. Rosenkranz further argued that Google’s use of the code was not transformational.

Justice Sonia Sotomayor appeared to suggest that jurors in the lower court case properly found Google’s use to be transformational because it took the APIs from a desktop environment to smartphones.

“Interfaces have been reused for decades,” said Goldstein. Google had to reuse Oracle’s code to respond to interoperability demands.

“It has always been the understanding that this purely functional, non-creative code that is essentially the glue that keeps computer programs together could be reused, and it would upend that world to rule the other way,” he said.

Supreme Court observers said that the high court appeared leaning toward upholding the 2016 jury verdict vindicating Google’s fair use defense.

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Fair Use is Essential But its Enforcement is Broken, Says Senate Intellectual Property Subcommittee

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Screenshot of Grammy-winning recording artist Yolanda Adams from the hearing

July 28, 2020 — “Fair use” is an essential doctrine of copyright law that is unevenly applied, said participants in a Senate Intellectual Property Subcommittee hearing Tuesday.

The hearing, “How Does the DMCA Contemplate Limitations and Exceptions Like Fair Use,” saw participants discuss whether the Digital Millennium Copyright Act still permits fair uses of copyrighted content that would be otherwise infringing.

The DMCA, passed in 1998, criminalizes the manufacture, sale or other distribution of technologies designed to decrypt encoded copyrighted material. This ban on anti-circumvention tools does not appear to account for fair use.

The fair use exception to copyright law allows the republication or redistribution of copyrighted works for commentary, criticism or educational purposes without having to obtain permission from the copyright holder.

However, Joseph Gratz, partner at Durie Tangri, said that fair use often clearly applies but is not enforced, leaving users of the legally obtained content to deal with automated content censors.

“Fair use depends on context, and machines can’t consider context,” he said. “A video, for example, that incidentally captures a song playing in the background at a political rally or a protest is clearly fair use but may be detected by an automated filter.”

When an automated filter detects a song on a platform like YouTube, it redirects advertising revenue from the creator of the video to the creator of the song, often erroneously.

Rick Beato, who owns a music education YouTube channel with over one-and-a-half million subscribers, said that he does not receive ad revenue from hundreds of his videos.

“One of my recent videos called ‘The Mixolydian Mode’ was manually claimed by Sony ATV because I played ten seconds of a Beatles song on my acoustic guitar to demonstrate how the melody is derived from the scale,” he said. “This is an obvious example of fair use, I would argue.”

Grammy-winning recording artist Yolanda Adams testified that she sees the problems of fair use employment as about more than simply receiving money.

“As a gospel artist, I’m not just an entertainer,” she said. “I see my mission as using my gift to spread the gospel — so for me, fair use is not just about money. It’s about access.”

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