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Artificial Intelligence

AI Likely to Bring Changes to Warfare, Including Potential De-escalation of Military Conflict, Say Panelists

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WASHINGTON, May 30, 2019 – The development of artificial intelligence will bring extreme changes to the future of warfare, a panel of scientists said Thursday, calling the impact of current advances analogous to the development of agriculture or the domestication of the horse.

The panel was hosted by the Hudson Institute, a conservative think tank founded by military and industrial strategist Herman Kahn. Speakers on the panel discussed the ways in which the Department of Defense can implement new technologies, as well as the problems that could arise as a result.

One common concern with AI in military decisions was the potentially faster escalation in the use of force. For example, during the Cuban Missile Crisis, AI might have recommended acting sooner, possibly leading to catastrophic results.

But Navy AI Lead Colonel Jeff Kojac argued that the opposite could also be true: A young platoon commander in a high-pressure situation could utilize the help of an unmanned aerial system in determining to not open fire on a non-combative group.

Additionally, Lindsey R. Sheppard, associate fellow at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, refuted this fear by explaining that a significant amount of cognitive psychology research demonstrates that more information does not necessarily lead to a faster decision.

Hudson Senior Fellow William Schneider Jr. also thought that the potential benefits outweighed the risks, pointing out that AI gives the military the opportunity to head off a crisis before it occurs.

In regard to 5G networks, Schneider claimed that they present a “substantial” risk because of what can be integrated into the technology. He cited a recent Human Rights Watch report describing a mass surveillance app that collects an “intrusive, massive collection of personal information.” Having a large inventory of data-based services presents a wide range of potential breaches.

The panelists also discussed how to mitigate the consequences of AI’s current limitations and vulnerabilities. Sheppard emphasized the importance of placing computing data as far out on the network’s edge as possible.

For example, Apple’s facial recognition technology used to send the captured image to a central server, compare it to a stored image, and send it back; this entire process is now done on the device itself, freeing important server space. This model could be applied to the structure of cloud architecture in military settings as well.

Dr. Alexander Kott, chief scientist for the Army Research Laboratory, described the need for a complex mix of decentralized clouds at the edge, making them more resilient to attack. Col. Kojac pointed out that an additional component of resilience is agility, recommending an incremental approach to developing these technologies over the more traditional “waterfall” approach.

Not only will the technology require agility, the people operating it will need to be flexible in order to make the rise of AI feasible. That barrier was highlighted by several audience members, too. Kojac called an AI literate force a “categorical imperative,” and Sheppard supported this idea by suggesting that all forces involved in the deployment of these technologies should be required to know how to program.

This should be made easier because the workforce currently entering the military is fundamentally different from what it was a decade ago. Troops now serve for longer periods of time and have higher education requirements. Additionally, many have a more technologically rich background, such that Schneider called them “digital natives.” He said that AI ultimately provides a “basis for optimism” for having the potential to save lives on the front lines.

On a civilian level, Sheppard also highlighted the need for a top to bottom recognition of the importance of analytics within company cultures.

(Photo of panelists at the Hudson Institute event by Drew Clark.)

 

Development Associate Emily McPhie studied communication design and writing at Washington University in St. Louis, where she was a managing editor for campus publication Student Life. She is a founding board member of Code Open Sesame, an organization that teaches computer skills to underprivileged children in six cities across Southern California.

Artificial Intelligence

CES 2022: Artificial Intelligence Needs to Resonate with People for Widespread Acceptance

Even though stakeholders may want technologies that yield better results, they may be uncomfortable with artificial intelligence.

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Pat Baird speaking at CES 2022

LAS VEGAS, January 6, 2022 – To get artificial intelligence into the mainstream, the industry needs to appease not just regulators, but stakeholders as well.

Pat Baird, regulatory head for software standards at electronics maker Philips, said at the Consumer Electronics Show Thursday that for AI technology to be successfully implemented in a field like medicine, everyone touched by it needs to be comfortable with it.

“A lot of people want to know more information, more information, more information before you dare use that [technology] on me one of the members of my family,” Baird said, “I totally get that, but it is interesting – some of the myths that we see in Hollywood compared to how the technology [actually functions],” adding to be successful you have to win the approval of all stakeholders, not just regulators.

“It is a fine line to take and walk,” Baird said. “I think we need to make sure that the lawmakers really understand the benefits and the risks about this – not all AI is the same. Not all applications are the same.”

Like accidents involving autonomous vehicles, rare accidents for AI can set the technology back years, Baird said. “One of the things that I worry about is when something bad happens that’s kind of reflected on the entire industry.”

Baird noted that many people come prepared with preconceived biases against AI that make them susceptible to skepticism or hesitancy that a technology is safe or will work.

But he did not go so far as to say these biases against AI are putting a “thumb on the scale” against AI, “but [that thumb] is floating near the scale right now.”

“That is one of the things that I’m worried about,” he said. “Because this technology can make a difference. I want to help my patients, damn it, and if this can only improve performance by a couple percent, that is important to that family that you just helped with that [technology].”

Joseph Murphy, vice president of marketing at AI company Sensory Inc., said, “Just like everything in life it’s a tricky balance of innovation, and then putting up the speed bumps to innovation. It’s a process that has to happen.”

On Wednesday, Sally Lange Witkowski, founder of business consulting firm Slang Consulting, said that companies should be educating consumers about the benefits of 5G for widespread adoption.

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Artificial Intelligence

Henry Kissinger: AI Will Prompt Consideration of What it Means to Be Human

Event with the former Secretary of State discusses our current lack of knowledge on how to responsibly harness AI’s power.

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Former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger

WASHINGTON, December 24, 2021 – Former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger says that further use of artificial intelligence will call into question what it means to be human, and that the technology cannot solve all those problems humans fail to address on their own.

Kissinger spoke at a Council on Foreign Relations event highlighting his new book “The Age of AI: And Our Human Future” on Monday along with co-author and former Google CEO Eric Schmidt in a conversation moderated by PBS NewsHour anchor Judy Woodruff.

Schmidt remarked throughout the event on unanswered questions about AI despite common use of the technology.

He emphasized that the computer systems may be able to solve complex problems, such as in physics dealing with dark matter or dark energy, but that the humans who built the technology may not be able to determine how exactly the computer solved the problems.

Along the lines of this potential for dangerous use of the technology, he stated how AI development, though sometimes a force for good, “plays” with human lives.

He pointed out that to deal with this great technological power, almost every country now has created a governmental to oversee the ethics of AI development.

Schmidt stated that western values must be the dominant values in AI platforms that influence everyday life such as ones that have key implications for democracy.

With all the consideration on how to make AI work so it is effective but also utilitarian, Kissinger noted how much human thinking must go into managing the “thinking” these machines do, and that “a mere technological edge is not in itself decisive” in terms of AI that can compete with adversaries such as China’s diplomatic technological might.

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Artificial Intelligence

Vaccine Makers Promote Use of Artificial Intelligence for Development

Artificial Intelligence assists in the development of vaccine research and trial testing, makers say.

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Najat Khan, Janssen’s research and development global head of strategy

WASHINGTON, December 15, 2021 – Artificial intelligence is helping accelerate the development of COVID-19 vaccines.

Leaders in Janssen’s and Moderna’s research and development groups said Tuesday that AI will help drug makers create better, more effective vaccines for patients.

Speaking at Bloomberg’s Technology Summit on Tuesday, Najat Khan, Janssen’s research and development global head of strategy, said AI is speeding up the delivery of new vaccines for populations in need. (Janssen is a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson.)

“We use AI and machine learning to predict performance of clinical sites for potential [vaccine] trial sites,” Khan said. AI can help researchers target patients for trials to obtain more comprehensive data sets. Vaccine developers spend time, money, and resources finding patients to participate in clinical trials.

Khan said “only four percent” of eligible patients join a clinical trial. AI can help researchers focus their efforts to identify patients to participate, she said.

Outstanding concerns with AI

Despite AI’s usefulness in vaccine development, Khan said there is still a gap that exists between the information available in healthcare and what’s useful for AI. “There’s lots of data generated in health care, but it’s not connected,” Khan stated. “If it’s not connected, it’s fragmented.”

The problem, Khan said, is the varying systems health clinics use to input and store patients’ information. “Different systems across different clinics needs the same data,” Khan added. “I can go to two different clinics, each one year apart, and my data would be separate.”

On a large scale, mismatched datasets lead to “an over-index of patient information in some areas and an under-index in others,” she said.

For better innovation in treating and curing diseases, health providers need better ways to gather share data while complying with patient privacy concerns, Khan added.

One of health care providers’ challenges is effective data minimization and ensuring that health entities only use patient data according to the patient’s consent over the use of their data. The industry is starting to see progress with tokenization, Khan said, which anonymizes data and links with other data sources for a specific patient-focused purpose.

“This allows us to do even more with AI,” Khan said.

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