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Digital Inclusion

Chancellor of North Dakota University Proposes a Digital-Cyber Land-Grant Program to Revitalize Rural America



Panelists discussing the digital-cyber land-grant university proposal at New America by Adrienne Patton

WASHINGTON, February 5, 2020 – The chancellor of a key land-grant university system on Wednesday proposed a way to modernize these universities through a system of digital inclusion aimed at revitalizing the heartland.

Speaking at the New American think tank, Chancellor of the North Dakota University System Mark Hagerott proposed a “digital-cyber” land-grant system. To cope with and harness the altered digital landscape that continues to rapidly change, Hagerott believes that education must shift to accommodate this new reality.

Hagerott proposal, first articulated in Issues in Science and Technology magazine, is designed to help students better understand and confront digital realities like coding, artificial intelligence, and cybersecurity.

Hagerott wrote, “the nation needs an advanced technology university system on a similar scale to catalyze the transition from a postindustrial economy, where many are left behind, to an inclusive digital economy.”

Hagerott’s idea was inspired by the land-grant university system that began with the passage of the Morrill Act in 1862. Signed by President Abraham Lincoln in the middle of the Civil War, the law called for the federal government to award land to states, which the states then sold to fund schools.

For their first century of existence, land-grant universities traditionally focused on agriculture education.

Now, Hagerott proposes five features of digital-cyber land-grant universities.

First, he suggests a “hybrid campus,” a combination of online and “brick-and-mortar education.” This doesn’t mean only a technical curriculum, but also includes the humanities and social sciences.

Second, changing the rigid Ph.D. requirement to be a university professor, which “may prevent critically important knowledge holders from leaving the industry or government and joining in this national education effort.”

Third, funding for these schools should not hurt “hard-pressed states and students.”

Fourth, “modification of federal tax incentives” for “internet philanthropists.”

Fifth, “incentives for technology companies and leading high-tech universities to help staff and partner with the new universities’ faculties and programs.”

Reactions to Hagerott’s digital-cyber land-grant university proposal

Commenting on the proposal, New America CEO Anne-Marie Slaughter drew parallels between the modern era invigorated by new technologies in the early 1900s and our digital landscape today.

Slaughter advocated for “massively changing our education system” and our understanding of higher education. Although Slaughter spent many years in the Ivy League sector, she said that it is now community colleges and state universities that are spearheading change and innovation.

Hagerott said he envisioned this new age of land-grant universities not solely serving the large communities in coastal tech hotspots, but rural areas. Location and place are crucial to the proposal.

People can’t keep moving to the coasts, said Hagerott. He supported encouraging rural Americans to engage with digital-cyber land-grant universities, and to stay in their hometowns to boost rural and farming economies and promote digital inclusion.

American Indian Higher Education Consortium CEO Carrie Billy commented that mobility is not an issue in tribal communities because they have a strong connection to the land. It’s a matter of bring cyber jobs to these deeply rooted communities where unemployment is high, said Billy.

Broadband’s vital role in the digital-cyber land-grant proposal

In response to the moderator asking what additional services universities should provide, National Initiative for Cybersecurity Education Director Rodney Petersen highlighted connectivity to broadband, but he saw the positive role that digital-cyber land-grant institutions could play with connectivity issues.

Billy lamented the loss of tribal languages, and suggested facilitating indigenous language learning through digital access.

Tracy Van Grack, senior vice president of public policy for AOL founder Steve Case’s investment company Revolution LLC, drew a comparison between opportunities to connect with associates in tech hub cities versus rural communities. Digital-cyber land-grant universities would still need to provide network density, or use the university as a convener for networking, said Van Grack.

Van Grack also suggested reexamining restrictive immigration policies because of their role as a barrier to innovation. Allowing people to come the United States for an education and building companies opens opportunities for everyone, said Van Grack.

Adrienne Patton was a Reporter for Broadband Breakfast. She studied English rhetoric and writing at Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah. She grew up in a household of journalists in South Florida. Her father, the late Robes Patton, was a sports writer for the Sun-Sentinel who covered the Miami Heat, and is for whom the press lounge in the American Airlines Arena is named.

Digital Inclusion

Debra Berlyn: Creating a Path to Close the Digital Divide for Older Adults

Programs like the ACP and technologies like fixed wireless can play a key role in connecting older adults.



The author of this Expert Opinion is Debra Berlyn, Executive Director of Project GOAL.

Today, three-year old Max wants to get on the family computer and see his Grammy on the other side of the country, but she could be one of the approximately 34 percent of those age 65 and older who still aren’t connected to the internet at home.

When it comes to getting connected to the internet, older adults continue to remain an isolated and unserved demographic across the country. There’s more work that remains to be done to get older adults connected to the internet. It’s time to get creative and expand the effort for broadband everywhere to everyone.

There’s an unprecedented wave of federal funding for broadband expansion on the horizon. The Broadband Equity Access and Deployment effort is underway and will soon roll-out the $42.5 billion allocated by Congress to expand high-speed internet access across all fifty states and U.S. territories.

Pair this with several industry discount programs to choose from and there may finally be a real opportunity to drive broadband access and adoption and start to close the digital divide for older adults.

Affordable broadband

For older adults with the greatest need, there’s one federally funded program that has had a significant impact on connecting the community to broadband: the Affordable Connectivity Program.

Congress appropriated $14.2 billion in the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act of 2021 for the ACP program to provide eligible lower-income households with up to a $30 monthly subsidy. About twenty internet service providers (including large ISPs AT&T, Verizon, Comcast, Charter and some smaller providers) offer a high-speed, high-quality internet service plan for no more than $30 dollars per month for those that qualify.

So, for these households leveraging ACP, which include millions of older adults, they apply their monthly $30 benefit to a plan and access the internet, essentially for free.

To date over 17 million households have signed up for ACP. Over 45 percent of ACP subscribers are age 50 years and older, and over 20 percent of the ACP recipient households are age 65 and older.

This program is truly one of the most important programs for assisting those in need and has finally provided the aging community the opportunity to receive the benefits of broadband.

While new qualified households continue to subscribe to ACP, time is running out for available funding of this important program. With the current number of household subscribers and continued growth, it’s estimated that the ACP will run out as early as the first half of 2024. Congress must consider options now for continuing funding for the Affordable Connectivity Program.

The ACP is an essential program for customers who require a subsidy to acquire or retain broadband service. For many others who may live in areas currently unserved or underserved, or who still haven’t adopted broadband service in a community, there are now new technologies for internet growth.

New approaches

One technology has upped the competitive marketplace in the home for consumers: fixed wireless internet service.  Internet service providers such as AT&T and Verizon, and wireless carriers such as T-Mobile, offer customers an alternative for accessing internet service.

It’s a type of 5G or 4G LTE technology to enable fixed broadband access using radio frequencies (instead of the cables used to wire traditional wired fixed-line broadband) from the home.  Fixed wireless internet service has opened a competitive field for internet service in many communities.

Satellite internet is another interesting approach for the provision of service. Starlink has offered high speed, low latency internet, primarily in limited rural areas, but upfront costs can be on the expensive side. Now, Amazon is entering this market with Project Kuiper to provide fast, affordable broadband service around the world.

It is planning to do this by deploying thousands of satellites in low Earth orbit linked to a global network of antennas, fiber and internet connection points on the ground. Amazon expects to begin delivering broadband connections in late 2024.

The deployment plan has an interesting strategy, with a key Amazon delivery objective of bringing affordable, high-speed connectivity to all consumers. Project Kuiper will offer low-cost and easy-to-install antennas (also known as “terminals) to make the service affordable. The plan can help connect older adults in unserved, and underserved areas of the country, particularly rural communities, and other remote areas without reliable connectivity.

Now, with the ACP offering an opportunity for affordable broadband, the BEAD roll-out, fixed wireless providing competitive broadband services and satellite internet service competition with Project Kuiper on the horizon, we are on the right track to close the digital divide for older adults.

Debra Berlyn is the Executive Director of the Project to Get Older Adults onLine (Project GOAL), which works to promote the adoption of broadband for older adults, and to advance technology applications for the community. She is also president of Consumer Policy Solutions, is on the board of the National Consumers League, and is a board member and senior fellow with the Future of Privacy Forum. This piece is exclusive to Broadband Breakfast.

Broadband Breakfast accepts commentary from informed observers of the broadband scene. Please send pieces to The views expressed in Expert Opinion pieces do not necessarily reflect the views of Broadband Breakfast and Breakfast Media LLC.

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Digital Inclusion

Learn How to Speak About Broadband, Say State Directors and Advocates at Connect (X)

Speaking simply will improve community engagement in digital inclusion efforts.



Photo of Keith Moore of the Minority Business Development Agency, Edyn Rolls of the Oklahoma Broadband Office, Valarry Bullard of the New Jersey Broadband Office, Scott Woods of Broadband Ready

NEW ORLEANS, May 12, 2023 – How we speak about broadband when talking to consumers while deploying digital equity programs is very important, said state broadband directors at a Connect (X) panel on Wednesday.  

Community residents face significant barriers to adoption that may turn them off to programs meant to benefit them, including the Affordable Connectivity Program which subsidizes high-speed internet subscriptions for low-income households. 

These communities have been historically overlooked by governments and do not trust officials to have their best interests at heart, said Courtney Richard of nonprofit affordable housing development corporation, National CORE. 

As state officials, we need to do all we can to connect with the residents and make the experience as comfortable for them as possible, said the Director of the New Jersey Broadband Office Valarry Bullard. For example, instead of saying “broadband,” officials should say “internet.” 

Locally owned businesses and households need to understand how the internet impacts them individually, and our job is to draw that connection for them, Bullard said. “For us, an opportunity is going to be education.”  

Knowing how to speak about broadband with communities that we work in is an essential piece of the puzzle that can serve to complicate the process if not handled well, said Scott Woods, vice president of community engagement and strategic partnership at 

“You can turn off a community by your simple approach,” said Woods. States must go by the overarching notion that the federal government has put broadband deployment in the hands of states because they understand the needs of the communities, he added.  

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Broadband's Impact

Digital Inclusion Requires Localized Approach and Partnerships with Community Members

There can be no standardization of digital equity approaches, agree panelists.



Photo of Courtney Richard

HOUSTON, May 10, 2023 – Achieving digital inclusion requires a localized approach with states involving trusted members of communities, said panelists at a Broadband Communities event Thursday. 

Each population subset will respond differently to inclusion efforts and, among those subsets, different households will need to address different barriers to adoption, said Courtney Richard of nonprofit affordable housing development corporation, National CORE.  

Standardizing digital inclusion efforts on any level is nearly impossible, agreed Bryan Mauk from PCs for the People. Unserved and underserved communities have specific concerns that service providers and state governments need to understand before deploying to those areas, he said. 

Human, one-on-one interaction with these communities is necessary to both understand their needs and build trust, added Richard. These communities have been historically overlooked by governments and do not trust officials to have their best interests at heart, she said.  

A lack of trust evolves the way in which you educate and approach the residents, said Richard Sherwin, CEO of provider, SpotOn networks. Trust is a critical issue and “has to be done just right.” 

Richard urged service providers and state governments to form relationships and partnerships with those people and institutions that are already trusted in the community. We see more success in areas where partnerships were formed and community anchor institutions are involved, she continued. 

States have increasingly adopted the digital navigator’s program which deploys state employees to communities with the purpose of improving adoption rates by training residents on device usage, said Richard. Messengers are most beneficial when they are members of the community that can mediate the conversation between parties and help communities find solutions that work best for them, she continued. 

These programs require human capital and continuous training of the digital navigators to be up to date on technology advancements, added Mauk. 

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