April 5, 2021 – A new survey released late last month suggests Californians are adopting more devices as smartphone-only connections in the state continue to drop.
The California Emerging Technology Fund, a non-profit foundation focused on digital equity in the state, and the University of Southern California partnered on March 22 to determine internet access in California based on demographics and location.
Eighty-five percent of Californians are connected through a desktop, laptop, or tablet, with 5.7 percent connected only via a smartphone for a total of about 91 percent of households connected overall in the state — up from 55 percent in 2008. Smartphone-only users dropped from 8.5 percent in 2014.
In an emailed statement to Broadband Breakfast, the CETF said, “An examination of access to broadband shows California passing an adoption milestone, though many low-income households remain offline at a critical time of the pandemic.”
The study is based on a survey of California adults aged 18 and up across 1,650 households. It was conducted via telephone survey using random-digit dialing of cellphones (94 percent) and landlines (6 percent) in California, and administered in English, Spanish, Vietnamese, and Mandarin.
Nearly 1 in 4 Hispanics are unconnected or under connected, the survey found, which put them significantly behind other racial and ethnic groups studied. Caucasians were found to be three times more connected than Spanish-speaking Hispanics.
Racial differences in the digital divide have continued to cause concern especially as some minority communities tend to suffer more from broadband affordability than Caucasian communities. Of the reasons given for lack of connectivity, the majority said internet was too expensive, at 68 percent, followed by privacy and security concerns.
Federal Focus On Municipal Builds Rubs Against States’ Policy Opposing Practice: Report
April 8, 2021 – President Joe Biden’s new broadband plan, which emphasizes the importance of municipal-owned networks, is likely to cause tensions with states that have restrictive rules in place against those kinds of builds, according to a new report.
That focus on local networks in Biden’s infrastructure plan, which includes $100 billion for broadband, has some in the telecom industry critical or uneasy, while others are excited about the possibilities.
New federal funding with attached rules prioritizing municipal and co-op networks will likely collide with policy in almost half the country, as shown in a BroadbandNow report released Wednesday that details restrictive legislation that is currently on the books in 18 states and minor “roadblocks” in five other states.
BroadbandNow has monitored municipal broadband for several years, and the methodology for this report was done differently than in the past. “Instead of tallying every state that restricts municipal broadband in some way, we’re looking at those that explicitly bar or make it unreasonably difficult to establish such networks,” it reads.
“The broadband sector has come into the forefront of public discourse, with millions of Americans struggling to stay online amidst the pandemic. In many communities, local governments have turned to creating their own solutions where private competition has not met the needs of the populace,” writes Tyler Cooper, chief editor at BroadbandNow.
“These barriers vary from state to state, but tend to take the form of outright bans on the establishment and/or operation of municipal broadband infrastructure,” the report reads. “As well as bureaucratic obstacles that make it functionally infeasible to create a citywide network.”
The report also found that “five additional states (Iowa, Arkansas, Colorado, Oregon, and Wyoming) have other types of roadblocks in place that make establishing networks more difficult than it needs to be.” Those roadblocks include items like vague legal stipulations, restrictions on certain pricing mechanisms, proposal-stage barriers, phantom cost requirements, and extra tax burdens.
Several states have introduced legislation to reduce those restrictions, including an Arkansas bill that passed in February 2021, a Washington bill still in progress, a Montana bill that failed, and three bills stalled in Tennessee and Idaho, according to the report.
A Republican-led House bill called the CONNECT Act would restrict government-run broadband networks nationwide as long as more than one other broadband service was already available in an area. The bill was introduced on February 18 by Missouri Rep. Billy Long.
In direct opposition to that effort, Biden’s American Jobs Plan would prioritize funding for “broadband networks owned, operated by, or affiliated with local governments, non-profits, and co-operatives,” according to a White House statement.
Experts Weigh What Future Of Broadband Could Look Like Under Biden’s Infrastructure Plan
April 8, 2021 – Experts in Wednesday’s Broadband Breakfast Live Online event debated what “future-proofing” broadband could look like and whether President Joe Biden’s infrastructure plan can achieve it.
The White House’s new “American Jobs Plan” looks to fund $100 billion for broadband infrastructure in addition to other areas, and part of that plan “prioritizes building ‘future proof’ broadband infrastructure in unserved and underserved areas so that we finally reach 100 percent high-speed broadband coverage,” said a White House statement.
Carri Bennet, general counsel for the Rural Wireless Association, said at Wednesday’s event that fiber is essential for all types of networks. “We do mobile wireless, we do fixed wireless, we use all sorts of spectrum in our toolkit, and all of these wireless networks are connected to fiber at some point, somewhere,” she said.
But Bennet also said there are exciting developments for wireless that is not specifically fiber. “There are a lot of exciting things going on in the wireless world right now that could future-proof networks,” she said. “That’s using software and virtualized networks so that you don’t have to change out hardware on antennas on towers anymore.”
Open radio access networks (Open RAN) are such systems, which use open protocol wireless technologies that prevent the industry from relying on proprietary supplies generated by few companies. Bennet said open RAN is showing promise.
Sen. Mark Warner, D-Virginia, led a bipartisan effort Tuesday requesting $3 billion in Open RAN technology funding for the Biden administration’s annual budget request.
Doug Brake, director of broadband policy at the think tank Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, said Wednesday he believes the policy needs to technology neutral.
Legislation should be flexible to allow the best solutions for an area that are needed, he said. When ‘future proofing’ comes up, he said he is worried that fiber and cable become the focus. While fiber is really important to getting many unserved areas connected, we shouldn’t lock ourselves into a single tool — we want the flexibility to solve the problem as its needed, he said.
Municipal versus private broadband
Brake also expressed concern that Biden’s plan would prioritize funds for local municipal and co-op broadband.
“We really need to leverage our private providers, particularly private providers that have large economies that scale,” he said. While municipalities and co-ops are great at filling needed gaps, “they don’t scale well outside the jurisdiction, they don’t invest in [research and development] to develop new access technologies; they don’t contribute to standards,” he said.
But Gary Bolton, CEO of the Fiber Broadband Association, said Wednesday that, “We’ve seen first-hand the significant benefits and significant economic impact that fiber has when it’s deployed in communities,”. He referenced Chattanooga, Tennessee, the first city in America where gigabit-speed internet was offered in 2010. The city developed a municipally-owned fiber network that, according to a 2020 study by Bento Lobo at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, saw considerable return over the 10 years since its deployment.
“Fiber also delivers remote healthcare, online learning, public safety and provides a path for future services like 5G,” Bolton said.
On broadband affordability
Affordability is another piece of the broadband puzzle, and Biden’s proposal also seeks to address long-term cost issues. In a statement, the White House acknowledged the need for some short-term subsidies, but said that “continually providing subsidies to cover the cost of overpriced internet service is not the right long-term solution for consumers or taxpayers.”
Everyone needs to be able to afford broadband, Matt Wood, vice president of policy and general counsel at the advocacy organization Free Press, said Wednesday. “We want to talk about affordability and adoption, and we’ve done that in the mapping context, we’ve done it here, and I think that’s why this plan is so exciting to us,” he said.
Funding programs like the Emergency Broadband Benefit, and the focus on affordability and adoption in Rep. Jim Clyburn’s bill and the LIFT America Act are key, he said. This is not one of those, “if you build it, they will come” situations, he said. Building “fabulous networks” in rural and urban areas that people can’t afford to use should not be the infrastructure goal, he said.
Bolton expressed support for Biden’s proposal to address long-term affordability issues, but he wants to see funding done well. “It pains me to see so much precious stimulus money going to subsidize ridiculously expensive, poor-performing broadband such as satellite in rural areas,” he said.
The details of the American Jobs Plan are still being developed, and the White House is discussing those details with a variety of members of the broadband industry, according to Bolton.
Libraries Must Be Vigilant To Ensure Adequate Broadband, Consultants Say
April 7, 2021 – Libraries should monitor their broadband speeds and ensure they are getting quality connections, according to library consultants.
Carson Block from Carson Block Consulting and Stephanie Stenberg of the Internet2 Community Anchor program told a virtual conference hosted by the American Library Association on Tuesday that it’s time libraries take a closer look at how they are getting broadband and if they are getting the speeds they are paying for. If not, they said they should re-negotiate.
Block and Stenberg shared details about the “Towards Gigabit Libraries” (TGL) toolkit, a free, self-service guide for rural and tribal libraries to better understand and improve their broadband. The new toolkit helps libraries prepare for E-Rate internet subsidy requests to aid their budget cycles.
It also has tips about communicating effectively between library and tech people since there is a gap in knowledge between those two groups. The TGL is supported by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) and Gigabit Libraries and Beyond (GLG) to improve the toolkit and expand throughout the United States. In addition to focusing on rural and tribal libraries, now urban libraries will be included for support.
During the event, a live poll showed all participating attendees said they “very infrequently” had technical IT support available in their home libraries. Stenberg said this confirmed TGL’s findings that libraries need more tech and IT support, as the majority of respondents in previous surveys gave similar concerning results.
To really emphasize the need for adequate broadband and support at libraries, another question was asked to live attendees about their current level of expertise around procuring and delivering access to broadband as a service in their library, assuming that the majority of attendees worked for libraries. All participants said they possess “no experience” trying to get broadband in the library.
Common issues that are to blame include libraries with insufficient bandwidth, data wiring or poorly set-up networks. Old and obsolete equipment also contributed to bad Wi-Fi coverage.
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