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Digital Inclusion

Internet Pioneer Vint Cerf Says Digital Inclusion is More Than Just Access

The luminary emphasized literacy on cybersecurity and accessibility features for disabled individuals.

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Photo of Vint Cerf from November 2006 by JD Lasica used with permission

WASHINGTON, February 15, 2022 ­– Vint Cerf, a vice president at Google and an early developer of the internet, said more data should be collected to get a better sense of internet performance across the country.

As the Federal Communications Commission races to improve broadband maps that show what areas have what speeds, including using crowdsourced data from speed tests, Cerf said on an Ask Me Anything-style interview Friday that broader information points need to be collected to get a more accurate picture of the problem.

“Today, people do episodic measurements of speed, go to speedtest.net…you run it, but usually only run it when you’re not happy with the performance, and so we get this skewed data that says everything is terrible,” Cerf said in the wide-ranging interview with Broadband.Money.

“So, we should be running background tests that are preserving of privacy, but help us understand what does this user see in terms of performance over a period of time? What are the variations, maximum, minimum average, and so on?”

Cerf also asked whether we can “distinguish between poor performance as a consequence of badly configured Wi-Fi versus a poorly performing internet access point or internet access to the ISP.”

“Those are the sorts of things that I hope we could do better at, so that we can understand better how well are we serving users for a variety of different applications,” he added.

In November, President Joe Biden signed the Infrastructure, Investment and Jobs Act into law, which puts $65 billion toward broadband. The National Telecommunications and Information Administration, an agency of the Commerce Department handling $42.5 billion of that money, will be tasked with its distribution to the states. The new legislation also raised the federal speed standard to 100 Megabits per second download and 20 Mbps upload, from 25/3.

But the holdup is the accurate maps, which Commerce Secretary Gina Raimondo said could come from the FCC this summer. The FCC for its part has been working to gather more data points than the agency’s reliance, historically, on internet service provider data, which in part led to a mess with the Rural Digital Opportunity Fund. That includes crowdsourcing data from consumers, including gathering speed data.

Cerf said he anticipates challenges to the deployment of funds from the IIJA, since measurement data on internet performance is not readily available.

Cerf noted that looking at components of performance in the home is not easy because Wi-Fi speeds often include input from fiber or cable and looking at performance without these components is not so simple.

Digital inclusion

Cerf also touched on what he’s like to see on the digital accommodations front.

“It is not just access to Internet; it’s not just access to the equipment that helps you use the Internet, but it also is accessibility in the sense of accommodating people who might have physical disabilities that interfere with their ability to use the technology,” Cerf said.

He said inclusion must focus on more than just ensuring people have access to broadband and connected devices, stating that individuals must learn the best type of equipment to be using for their connections.

“That includes what kind of equipment should I be using? What’s on the laptop? What kind of trouble might I get into? What’s phishing? What’s pharming? What’s malware? What’s the denial-of-service attack? What other kinds of content? What’s ransomware? People need to be aware of the risk factors going online,” Cerf said.

Internet of Things, centralized social media login

Cerf suggested that state officials should play hardball with network operators and refuse to provide them with funds until they can answer the questions about broadband data that they are asked.

He also prognosticated on internet developments of the future, predicting increase in the prevalence of Internet of Things devices for data collection in industries such as agriculture should better network support be developed for the devices.

Cerf floated the possibility of centralized online logins rather than having to enter sites through individual social media accounts such as a Facebook or Google profile.

Additionally, he expressed skepticism over how revolutionary the metaverse and cryptocurrency will be in the tech sector despite stating that the ability to move money around without having a credit card is important.

Digital Inclusion

White House Presses Outreach Initiatives for Affordable Connectivity Program

White House officials urged schools and other local institutions to engage in text-message and social media campaigns for the ACP.

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Photo of President Joe Biden, obtained from Wikimedia.

WASHINGTON, September 15, 2022 – The White House on Monday urged schools and other local institutions to engage in text-message and social media campaigns, PSAs, and other community-outreach initiatives to promote enrollment in the Federal Communications Commission’s Affordable Connectivity Program among of families with school-age children.

The Affordable Connectivity Program subsidizes internet service bill for low-income households. Monthly discounts of up to $30 are available for non-tribal enrollees, $75 for applicants on qualifying tribal lands. In addition, the ACP offers enrollees a one-time discount $100 on qualifying device purchases.

To boost ACP enrollment, speakers encouraged schools to reach out directly to families. Bharat Ramanurti, deputy director of the National Economic Council, said text-message campaigns drive up enrollment in government programs. A Massachusetts text-message campaign doubled ACP enrollment rates in subsequent days, said Ramanurti.

Also highlighted was the administration’s “ACP Consumer Outreach Kit,” which provides partners with resources, including fliers, posters, audio PSAs, social-media templates.

In fact, many of these tactics have proved effective in increasing ACP enrollment among telehealth patients. In addition, Microsoft and Communications Workers of America recently announced a circuit of ACP sign-up drives in that will tour several states including Michigan, New York, and North Carolina.

Political considerations as November nears…

As students go back to school and midterm elections loom, new ACP sign-ups could benefit the enrollees as well as the Democrats’ political chances.

Public officials and private experts alike recognize the value of community involvement in extending broadband connectivity and digital literacy nationwide. Marshaling community institutions – like schools – to maximize broadband access could help Biden and other Democrats overcome inflation-driven electoral headwinds in the November midterms. The White House obtained commitments from 20 providers to offer high-speed internet plans for $30 per month or less to ACP-eligible households – this means no out-of-pocket costs for recipients of ACP discounts. Free broadband coverage could bring the administration – and all Democrat candidates, by extension – back into the good graces of low-income families.

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Digital Inclusion

Federal Government Must Collect More Granular Data on Minorities to Aid in Initiatives

Discussion on the “data gap” comes as the nation tries to connect the unserved and underserved.

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Screenshot of Denice Ross, the White House's chief data scientist

WASHINGTON, August 31, 2022 – In order to serve the needs of all Americans, the federal government must gather and act on more granular data on underrepresented minority groups that have been historically overlooked in the data-gathering process, said Denice Ross, the White House’s chief data scientist.

Ross argued at an online event hosted by the Center for Data Innovation on Tuesday that many minority groups – including African Americans, Native Americans, the disabled, and the LGBT community – are disadvantaged by the “data divide,” a term which refers to disparities in the amount and quality of available data on various groups.

Ross was citing a report issued earlier this year by the Equitable Data Working Group, a task force created by President Joe Biden earlier this year, which said policymakers are often unable to perceive or ameliorate problems facing minority communities if data on those communities are unavailable or insufficiently disaggregated. Disaggregated data, the report says, is “data that can be broken down and analyzed by race, ethnicity, gender, disability, income, veteran status, age, or other key demographic variables.”

The report recommends a federal data collection strategy that safeguards privacy and facilitates analysis of “the interconnectedness of identities and experiences,” or how individuals’ various minority-group identities compound the societal disadvantages they face. The report also advocates the creation of “incentives and pathways” promoting minority representation in the data collection process.

The recommendations come as the broadband industry and federal agencies try to improve knowledge of where there are unserved and underserved areas for broadband connectivity and to take action to improve digital literacy. The Illinois Broadband Lab and other state broadband offices, for example, implement a community-up approach to data gathering. Direct community involvement provides data insights that help states deliver coverage to in-need communities, officials say. 

In the panel discussion that followed Ross’s opening remarks, experts and academics agreed that community outreach is a necessary step in closing the data divide. Dominique Harrison, director of bank Citi Ventures’ Racial Equity Design and Data Initiative, said that some in the African American community view data collection with skepticism.  

Christopher Wood, executive director of LGBT Tech, argued that the passage of a federal privacy standard is a critical step toward establishing trust in government data collection. The most recent attempt to pass a national privacy regime, the American Data Privacy and Protection Act, was approved by the House Committee on Energy and Commerce last month.

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Digital Inclusion

Libraries in Position to Help Promote Federal Programs, Improve Digital Literacy: Library Rep

Libraries can act as gateways to ensure community members know about their broadband subsidy options.

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Screenshot of Larra Clark, deputy director of the Public Library Association, via CSPAN

WASHINGTON, August 31, 2022 – Libraries’ close connection with community members allow them to act as gateways for digital literacy, according to the deputy director of the Public Library Association.

Initiatives such as the Federal Communications Commission’s Affordable Connectivity Program and Emergency Connectivity Fund lower the cost of obtaining broadband coverage and devices, but at least the former has been plagued by a marketing problem.

As the FCC builds its outreach program for to more effectively market the ACP, Larra Clark, deputy director of the PLA and of the Public Policy & Advocacy Office of the American Library Association, said libraries can help promote those programs and help address digital literacy problems as well.  

Speaking Monday at a GovExec and Comcast web event, Clark argued that the efforts of government officials, experts, and industry players to provide broadband coverage and the hardware necessary to access it must be accompanied by community-level educational programs.

Many unserved or underserved individuals, however, are unaware of how to get access to broadband, Clark said. And even if unserved and underserved individuals are aware of the programs through which they can obtain broadband, they often lack the digital literacy to navigate application processes.

Clark said she believes that a necessary component of digital literacy outreach is understanding the perspectives on and biases against new technologies in many hard-to-reach communities. “I really believe these human dimensions should be at the forefront of our conversations,” Clark said.

Expanding digital literacy among difficult-to-reach populations is a recognized challenge for many broadband industry experts and politicians.

A Texas library system facilitated pandemic relief

At the same event, David Cross, Comcast’s vice president of enterprise sales, offered an example of how libraries can extend broadband assistance to their communities.

During the pandemic, one Texas library system offered parking lot drive-through stations that helped people sign up for government assistance on energy costs. By providing iPads, WiFi access, and staff assistance, Cross said, this program ensured that all in-need community members – including the unserved and the technologically illiterate – were able to access relief and restore power to their homes.

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