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Community Broadband

Gigi Sohn Announced as New Executive Director of the American Association for Public Broadband

In surprise announcement at keynote luncheon, Sohn revealed as the first executive director of the new organization advocating for municipalities.



Photo of Gigi Sohn at press conference at Broadband Communities by Drew Clark

HOUSTON, May 3, 2023 – President Joe Biden’s former Federal Communications Commission nominee Gigi Sohn concluded her keynote remarks at the Broadband Communities Summit here with the announcement that she will be the first executive director of the American Association for Public Broadband.

“With money flowing from federal governments down to states and localities for public broadband to have a network that works for them,” Sohn said, “now is the perfect time“ to join the new association, whose founding was announced at the summit here last May.

Sohn said that public providers need to “have access to the same funding as private” ISPs.

In remarks at a press conference following the announcement, Sohn highlighted the need for public broadband advocates to find local community champions for broadband networks.

Such champions, Sohn said, need to say: “I want this, my community needs this, and we are going to figure out a way to have this.”

“We need to find those people,” she said of the state and local champions for broadband. “An awful lot of them are in conservative states.”

In announcing her new position in a fireside chat, Sohn talked about her 16 months after being designated a Federal Communications Commissioner by President Biden in November 2021, the trials of three congressional hearings, and her decision to withdraw her nomination from consideration in March 2023 after failing to secure the votes for Senate passage.

Sohn spoke in the luncheon keynote with Kim McKinley, chief marketing officer at UTOPIA Fiber, and Bob Knight, a local government official from Richfield, Connecticut.

Vocal advocate for public broadband

Sohn has been a vocal advocate of public broadband for years, and said that “there should be a level playing field” between public and private broadband. “This is about freedom for communities and their leaders to choose what kind of broadband their residents should have,” she said.

Sohn’s leadership of the association will focus on building this freedom for public broadband, she said.

She said that her number one priority will be to increase membership of AAPB, she said. The next priority will be to ensure that public broadband entities have access to federal funding coming down the pipeline on an equal basis to private companies.

The non-profit AAPB was founded by state and local broadband officials to build a diverse membership of public broadband networks nationwide and advocate for municipal broadband at all government levels.

“Until now, there has not been a membership-based advocacy organization that works to ensure that public broadband can grow unimpeded by anti-competitive barriers,” said Sohn. “We have the chance to make a positive case for states to fund and communities to choose public broadband and oppose barriers to local choice.”

Speaking of her 16 month ordeal, Sohn said it was “enormously frustrating” to not be able to talk about important issues during the process.

Teralyn Whipple, who joined Broadband Breakfast in 2022, studied marketing at Brigham Young University. She has reported extensively on broadband infrastructure, investments and deployment. She has also headed marketing campaigns for several small companies.

Community Broadband

Rural Broadband Provider Touts Cooperative and Coalition-based Models

Collaboration and a not-for-profit model allow rural providers to serve the most sparsely populated areas.



Screenshot of Sachin Gupta, director of government business and economic development at Centranet

WASHINGTON, September 4, 2023 – Cooperatives and coalitions between utility providers will be essential for expanding rural broadband access, said Sachin Gupta, director of government business and economic development at Centranet, on Friday.

Centranet, a member of the Cooperative Broadband Coalition of Oklahoma, is entering the final stage of building over 4,000 miles of fiber-optic infrastructure to serve about 17,000 households, all two years ahead of schedule.

“I’d say a lot of that is down to the effort of the cooperative,” Gupta said at an Ask Me Anything event in the broadband community.

The cooperative is collectively owned by its member organizations, and does not operate for profit. This frees members to share resources and work to provide broadband service to areas too sparsely populated for traditional providers to invest in, Gupta said.

Gupta pointed to two factors that make electrical cooperatives like his well-suited to provide broadband in rural areas.

First, they have existing grids under their ownership, many of which are already equipped with fiber. This gives them a base to expand on, and removes the red tape involved in building on poles owned by other companies.

“We’re already an infrastructure company,” Gupta said. “So, building another kind of infrastructure, it’s not that difficult for us.”

And second, they have resources already dedicated to analyzing geographic data. Information about the locations where providers are planning to build is a prerequisite for beginning even a preliminary design process, according to Gupta.

“A strong GIS group is the engine that will accelerate your co-op,” Gupta said. “If you have no GIS people, start with one. If you have one, add another.”

Collaboration between rural providers will also be essential for bridging middle-mile gaps in networks, according to Gupta. He said broadband providers with small footprints working to connect their networks can make up for the lack of middle mile fiber infrastructure in rural areas.

“Coalition-based middle mile networks, I think those are the future,” Gupta said. “Those are the things that allow these rural networks to flourish.”

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Community Broadband

Karl Bode: After Decades of Talk, Palo Alto Drives Forward on Municipal Fiber Build

Palo Alto officials have been talking about building such a network since 1998.



Photo of Dean Batchelor from City of Palo Alto Utilities

For over 20 years, the city of Palo Alto, the “Birthplace of Silicon Valley,” has flirted with the idea of building a city-owned municipal fiber network. Now after years of debate, numerous studies, several false starts, and many unfulfilled RFPs, city officials say they’re finally moving forward with a city-owned fiber network they hope will transform affordable broadband connectivity citywide.

Palo Alto officials tell ILSR that the project will be spearheaded by the city-utility, and deployed in coordination with a major upgrade of the city’s electrical systems. Phase One of the city’s planned fiber deployment should begin later this year, delivering fiber access to around 20 percent of the city–or 6,500 homes and businesses.

Phase One will be funded entirely from the utility’s existing cash reserves. Profits from that deployment will then be used to expand affordable, multi-gigabit fiber access to all of the city’s 63,210 residents. Though no shortage of challenges remain.

A long time coming

That Palo Alto residents have been clamoring for better, more affordable alternatives to regional telecom monopolies for 25 straight years speaks for itself. The high costs, slow speeds, and abysmal customer service of regional telecom giants AT&T and Comcast have long driven the public’s unflagging interest in better, cheaper connectivity options.

Palo Alto officials have been talking about building such a network since at least 1998. In 2001, the city conducted a small network trial that was not expanded due to cost. In 2006, the city issued an RFP that eyed a public-private partnership (P3) to expand fiber access, but says it terminated this effort “due to the lack of financial resources of the private firms.”

In the years’ since, the city has issued several additional RFPs with an eye on P3s, but consistently found that providers weren’t keen on spending the kind of money necessary to ensure even, equitable access to affordable fiber. Under the P3 model, cities generally don’t have much control over the contours, details, and pricing of the finished network.

“[Major ISPs] were looking to pick and choose where they wanted to go within the city,” Palo Alto Director of Utilities Dean Batchelor told ILSR. “They want to go to a lot of the MDUs, multiple dwelling units, large complexes, things like that. And the goal from the council was that they wanted to build the entire city out. There was not going to be a partnership that would agree to build 100 percent of the last mile.”

Officials determined that a PPP wouldn’t provide the kind of uniform affordability the city was aiming for, while an immediate citywide build would be too cost prohibitive.

Ultimately, last winter city leaders decided that an incremental build–starting with the least competitive and most vocally underserved parts of the city–would make the most financial sense.

“We gave the city council three options,” David Yuan, strategic planning manager at the Utilities Department, told ILSR. “The first was a citywide build starting right away, but we would have to bond finance like a hundred million dollars. And then the second option, the one that they chose, was to do an incremental build with the twenty million dollars that we have available.”

COVID, needed electrical utility upgrades change the calculus

Palo Alto is currently the only major city in California that owns and operates its own municipal utility providing residents with electricity, natural gas, water, sewer and limited fiber optic services. As part of the city’s pledge to become carbon neutral by 2030, Palo Alto is conducting a major upgrade of the city’s electrical grid.

That upgrade is expected to cost somewhere between $220 million and $306 million, and take the better part of seven years to complete. A key component of those upgrades is the $26 million expansion of the city’s existing fiber backbone; to be used primarily for utility maintenance, including the management of city smart meters and municipal services.

Last December, city officials voted to approve plans to spend another $20 million to extend access to that network to local residents and businesses. Phase One of the deployment is expected to provide affordable access to around 7,160 homes and 875 businesses, paid for by the city utility’s existing fiber and electric reserves.

“Areas where we were going to go into the first phase of the fiber is pretty much the first phase of the rebuild on the electric side, so we think that there might be some cost savings and some sharing of the electric utility funds to be able to replace these poles, probably at a much quicker pace than what we would do if we were just doing them on the fiber side,” Batchelor said.

While electrical upgrades were a motivating factor, officials say Palo Alto’s newfound urgency was also driven by the widespread frustration with broadband access many locals experienced during the COVID home education and telecommuting boom.

“COVID definitely played a major role,” Yuan said. “I think during that time span, everyone had to work remotely in both school and for work…Internet basically became an essential service. And then people were having problems at home with their capacity or getting dropped off calls. So I think at that time the Council realized that it should be considered a public utility as well.”

Palo Alto generally sees more broadband competition than many municipalities that eye a municipal network. According to city surveys, Comcast provides service to around 70 percent of the city, while AT&T provides either fiber or aging DSL to around 30 percent. Independent ISP Sonic provides gigabit fiber access to roughly four percent of the city.

But the same survey indicates that 36 percent of city residents are frustrated by substandard customer service from their ISP, and more than 46 percent of locals are dissatisfied or somewhat dissatisfied with the cost of broadband service.

A quest for lower prices was cited as the number one reason residents would be likely to switch to the Palo Alto fiber network.

Data consistently indicates that affordability remains among the top obstacles to widespread broadband adoption. Darren Numoto, director of IT for Palo Alto, told ILSR that while it’s too early to detail tier pricing, officials are keenly interested in leveraging the city’s new fiber build to drive down costs for marginalized populations.

Challenges abound, including potential utility pole standoff with AT&T

Last May, the City Council approved a contract amendment with Magellan for program management, organizational change management, network operations and technical support, as well as the utility pole electric make-ready engineering necessary for Phase One.

But expanding the city’s existing fiber network to every resident and business still faces no shortage of hurdles. Including the need to negotiate pole attachment rates with what will ultimately be a direct competitor for the network in some neighborhoods: AT&T.

Palo Alto and AT&T co-own a significant number of the city’s utilities poles under an agreement that dates back to 1918. Some competitors, like Google Fiber, have faced significant delays due to the difficulty of utility pole negotiations with AT&T, a company that has spent the better part of three decades attempting to undermine the development of community broadband alternatives.

“We definitely have concerns,” Yuan said. “They have been slow to respond to some of our requests. So, we are trying to see what kind of cooperation they’re giving us. And we’re also looking into joining the North California Joint Pole Association (NCJPA) to see if there’s more enforcement on that end.”

The city’s plan requires running 48 miles of new underground line and 35 miles of overhead cable requiring the use of 6,000 existing utility poles. Phase One alone requires passing 1,750 existing poles, the attachment of cable to 1,300 poles, the replacement of 100 poles, and working with third-parties to lower hardware on another 325 poles.

Between ongoing environmental review and negotiations with AT&T, the city has its hands full for the remainder of the year.

“I think the environmental review is expected to take about six months,” Yuan said. “AT&T will be an ongoing discussion for a while, but hopefully we can get them to the table soon.”

Once the environmental review and pole attachment negotiations with AT&T are completed, officials say future deployment phases will be dictated by resident interest gauged by community surveys, the need to minimize disruption, alignment with the city’s electrical system upgrades, and neighborhood proximity to existing fiber huts.

Locals can receive updates via the project website and accompanying blog. Unsurprisingly, city officials are thrilled to see meaningful progress on a project a quarter-century in the making.

“We’re very excited about the project. It’s been 20 plus years and waiting,” Yuan said.

Editor’s Note: This piece was originally published on on August 15, 2023, and is reprinted with permission.

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Community Broadband

After BEAD Allocation, Gigi Sohn Advocates Municipal Broadband to Close Coverage Gaps

It’s unclear how BEAD funds will interact with state laws restricting municipal broadband projects.



Screenshot of Gigi Sohn on a Ready or Not? LIVE podcast with Scott Woods on Monday

WASHINGTON, July 18, 2023 — Municipal broadband providers, which play a vital role in bridging the digital divide, should have equitable access to federal funding regardless of state regulatory roadblocks, said Gigi Sohn, executive director of the American Association for Public Broadband.

Speaking on the Broadband Money’s “Ready or Not?” podcast on Monday, Sohn was critical of state prohibitions or restrictions on locally owned broadband, saying these laws are “anti-consumer and anti-competitive.”

Last month the National Telecommunications and Information Administration announced the amounts states will receive from the $42.5-billion Broadband Equity, Access and Deployment program. Even though the BEAD’s funding guide does not permit states to exclude municipal broadband from grant consideration and does “strongly encourage” states to waive such restrictive law, it is unclear how the requirements would interact with states where those laws already exist.

In 2022, NTIA head Alan Davidson indicated he would “pressure” states with such laws to accept municipal broadbands as eligible for the program. While some have rolled back their restrictions in recent years, 17 states still have laws in place that make establishing or maintaining community broadband networks impossible or extremely costly and unsustainable.

Sohn, a former nominee for commissioner on the Federal Communications Commission, cited Wilson County, North Carolina as an example where the state had barred the community-owned broadband Greenlight from serving residents beyond the county line, leaving locals with few internet options from private companies that would cost an exorbitant amount of money.

To address this issue, Sohn recently joined AAPB, a non-profit organization founded by state and municipal broadband officials to create a network of community broadband providers and promote the expansion of public broadband.

These municipal network models would be essential in closing the digital divide because they are motivated by different incentives than private companies to “go to places that incumbent won’t,” Sohn argued.

“They are not interested in return on investment,” she added. “They are interested in making sure everybody is connected.”

Sohn had previously cautioned against large private companies, who opposed community-owned broadbands to retain market dominance but allegedly refused to expand their service to high-cost regions, where profits would be minimal.

As AAPB executive director, her goal would be to double the number of community-owned networks in the next five years.

“This is about whether a community should have choice,” said Sohn. “This is about freedom.”

Municipal network deployment has been a contentious topic for quite some time. Some places have decided to implement the model, either through a public-private partnership or an open-access model in which multiple ISPs share the same infrastructure lent by municipalities. However, experts have also raised concerns that the presence of public providers would discourage new entry into the market and possibly regulate existing service providers.

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